The Passion Translation New Testament: With Psalms, Proverbs, and Song of Songs by Brian Simmons
“But you—who do you say that I am?” Jesus asked.
13 When Jesus came into the parts of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples this question, “Who are people saying about me the son of man, the Son of Man? Who do they believe I am?”
16 Simon Peter spoke up and said, “You are the Anointed One, (d) the Son of the living God!”
17 Jesus replied, “You are favored and privileged Simeon, son of Jonah!(e) For you didn’t discover this on your own, but my Father in heaven has supernaturally revealed it to you. 18 I give you the name Peter the Rock (f) And this truth of who I am will be the bedrock foundation on which I will build my church-my legislative assembly (g) and the power of death (h) will not be able to overpower it! (i) 19 I will give you the keys (j) of heaven’s kingdom realm to forbid on earth that which is forbidden in heaven, and to release on earth that which is released in heaven (k).” 20 He then gave his disciples strict orders not to tell anyone that he was God’s Anointed One. Mathew 16:13-20
(d) 16:16 Or “the Christ (Messiah).
(e) 16:17 Jonah means “dove.” Or “Simon, son of John.” Simeon means “he who hears.” Peter heard the Father’s whisper within that Jesus was the Christ. Simeon was his formal Hebrew name. Peter became his identity as Jesus gave him the nickname of “pebble.” He is also referred to as Simon Peter.
(f) 16:18 Or Keefa, the Aramaic word for “stone” or “pebble.” See Matthew 4:18 with footnote. There is an obvious pun only found in the Hebrew Matthew. The Hebrew word for “stone” is eben, and the Hebrew word for “build” is ebeneh. The Greek text does state that Peter is the “rock” on which the church is built. However, the implication is that it is Peter’s revelation from the Father and his confession of Jesus as the Son of God that becomes the “bedrock foundation” for the church. The earliest writings of the church fathers all acknowledge that the Rock is Jesus Christ, not Peter. See Deuteronomy 32:18,30-31, Psalm 18:46, and Isaiah 8:14, 17:10, 51:1-8.
(g) 16:18 The Greek word for “church” is ekklesia and means “legislative assembly” or “selected ones.” This is not a religious term at all, but a political and governmental term that is used many times in classical Greek for a group of people who have been summoned and gathered together to govern the affairs of a city. For Jesus to use this term means he is giving the keys of governmental authority in his kingdom to the church. See R. Scott and H. G. Liddell, A Greek·English Lexicon, p. 206; J. H. Thayer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, p. 196; and Oskar Seyffert, A Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, pp. 202-203.
(h) 16:18 Or “the gates of hell,” a metonymy for the power of death.
(i) 16:18 Or “All the forces of hell will never have the power to win a victory over it!” There is no power of darkness that can stop the advancing church that Jesus builds.
(j) 16:19 The “keys” are symbols of authority and ruling power. See Isaiah 22:22.
(k)16:19 Or “Whatever you bind on earth will have been bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will have been loosed in heaven.” Or “That which you forbid on earth must be that which is already forbidden in heaven, and that which you permit on earth must be that which is already permitted in heaven.”
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